주교 선택은: 천주교회 위한 인격자라야지, 사다리 오르는 승진자는 말아야 !,To choose a bishop: a man for the Church, not a "ladder-climber"
<1984년 5월 6일, 서울, 여의도 5.16 광장에서 거행된 한국순교복자 103위의 시성식 광경.당시 언론과 보도기관에서는 100만여명으로 보도하였으나, 필자는 55만명~60여만명으로, 내한한 성청 인사들에게 보고 하였었다.
103위 우리 한국 순교 선조들이 시성되신 5월 성모 성월에 온 교회가 힘을 내자 !,
<Sua Santità Giovanni Paolo II aveva concelebrato la messa per la canonizzazione dei 103 Beati martiri coreani, con molti Cardinali, Arcivescovi, Vescovi, sacerdoti e fedeli cattolici - circa 500.000 - a Seoul il 6 maggio 1984. Per quella canonizazione, il Rev. Byon, rettore di Chon Jin Am, il luogo natale della Chiesa, aveva servito per 5 anni (1980~1984) come segretario esecutivo generale della commissione episcopale per la canonizzazione dei 103 Beati Martiri coreani.>
(Photos by Baeck - Nam-Shick).
New anti-corruption law for members of Vatican management
Il cardinale Marc Ouellet
바티칸 주교성 장관 추기경의 말씀. - Cardinal Marc Ouellet.
주교 선택은: '천주교회 위한 인격자'라야지, 사다리 오르는 승진자는 말아야 !
To choose a bishop: a man for the Church, not a "ladder-climber"
Vatican News brings you another chapter in its series dedicated to an inside look at the history, objectives and “mission budgets” of the various Vatican offices that assist the Pope in his pastoral ministry. Here we feature the Congregation for Bishops with an interview with the Prefect, Cardinal Marc Ouellet.
By Benedetta Capelli – Vatican City
The criteria is not to seek perfection, “saints” to put on a pedestal, but men who certainly possess human and spiritual virtues. The first of these is prudence which does not mean “reticence or timidity” but “balance between action and reflection while exercising a responsibility that requires great dedication and courage”. Cardinal Marc Ouellet succinctly outlines the typical profile of a candidate for the ministry of bishop. The Vatican Congregation he has guided for years has this responsibility which is carried out according to well-defined norms and practices. The objective is to help the Pope choose pastors to whom the ecclesial communities throughout the world will be entrusted. It is a task, he explains, that is conducted collegially “with a spirit of faith, and not with a calculating spirit”.
Cardinal Marc Ouellet
Pope Francis has used a strong expression to describe the great responsibility that belongs to the Dicastery called to choose Successors of the Apostles: “This Congregation exists to ensure that the name of the one who is chosen has first been spoken by the Lord”. What do you do to remain faithful to such an exalted and demanding task?
R. – The task the Church entrusts to this Dicastery is that of helping the Holy Father decide. Our task is that of making a prior discernment. Concerning this “first stage”, I can synthesize this enormous task in three verbs: prayer, consultation, verification. Prayer: prayer is the first and last thing done. It is an act of an initial and final entrusting of our intentions to the Heavenly Father. It is not by chance that the Chapel with the Blessed Sacrament is at the center of the offices of the Congregation. Every time anyone walks the halls, we find ourselves in front of this mysterious Presence to whom every action must refer. Consultation: this preparatory stage we carry out reaches its peak after an intense undertaking using a synodal method in consultation with the People of God, Nuncios, Members of the Plenary Assembly. What has been distilled from all this is what arrives on the Pope’s desk. Verification: this means we try to achieve the greatest certainty possible that the person who has been indicated possesses the necessary qualities.
Behind each episcopal appointment is a discernment made on the part of the Congregation. But it also consults and involves the Apostolic Nunciatures and the local Churches. Can you explain the method used to carry this out and what financial resources this entails regarding your mission budget?
R. – Identifying and evaluating a candidate is the fruit of a collaboration between several players. Every three years, a list of promovendis is compiled by the Metropolitan Bishops. This is a list of priests who may be suitable for the office of bishop, according to the indications of the Bishops of the Metropolitan dioceses. The Nunciature evaluates each candidate using a consultative process with the people of God. This process is carried out with utmost confidentiality. Those who are consulted in this process are asked to keep strict confidentiality to guarantee the truthfulness of the information and, above all, to protect the reputation of the person being evaluated. Once the best candidates who fit the needs of the moment have been identified, the information is transmitted to the Holy See. It then, through the Congregation for Bishops, considers the candidates in the light of general criteria and, with the help of an Assembly of its members designated for this purpose by the Holy Father – which currently consists of 23 members between Cardinals and Bishops from all over the world. This Assembly carries out the final evaluation that will be offered to the Pope for his final decision.
2021 Budget of the Apostolic Mission of the Holy See
Isn’t there a risk that the selection process of bishops might be affected by certain commonalities or conditions? How can this be avoided?
R. – As in all human matters, those involved might be moved by ambition, envy, personal interests. To avoid this, it is necessary to cultivate the spirit of detachment in the people of God and in the formation of priests. The Church has no need of people who want to “climb the social ladder”, of people who seek the first places, but of men who sincerely want to serve their brothers and sisters and show them the path of faith and conversion.
What counts most in the pastoral profile of a bishop: natural gifts, spiritual virtues, or the capability to govern a diocese?
R. – The Congregation for Bishops, unlike the Congregation for Saints, deals with the pastoral profiles of candidates who are not yet perfect, but of men on the way of perfection. What certainly counts in a priest proposed for the episcopate are the theological and cardinal virtues, the so-called principal human virtues. Above all, what is most important for this office is prudence. This should not be understood as reticence or timidity, but as balance between action and reflection while exercising a responsibility that requires great dedication and courage.
Cardinal Ouellet at his desk
What influence has the personality and sensibilities of various Pontiffs had on the criteria used to select bishops?
R. – The sensibilities of a pontificate certainly have a notable influence on the choices. Each Pope has received a particular “vision” from the Holy Spirit regarding the Church’s problems and priorities it should have. Anyone who collaborates with him is called to enter into the perspective of the Chief Shepherd with the spirit of faith, and not a calculating spirit.
The ad limina visits the bishops from around the world do every five years are an important moment for exchange between the local Churches, the Pope and the Roman Curia. What can be done so these visits become an opportunity for awareness and enrichment for the lay faithful and parish communities?
R. – The ad limina visits are a concrete synodal moment that the bishops throughout the world experience with the Pope and the Dicasteries that assist him in his ministry. The “presentations” the Episcopal Conferences bring from their territories create a fascinating mosaic through which one can glimpse how God is working in every corner of the globe. Prior to the visit, each individual bishop should have listened to his people. Once he has returned to his diocese after this series of meetings that culminates with the celebration of the Eucharist with the Holy Father on the Tomb of Peter, he should recount this experience so everyone is informed about what was received.
Congregation for Bishops - The dicastery's chapel
You are also President of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, established by Pius XII in 1958. Why was this Commission placed under the Congregation for Bishops and what role does it play within the context of the pontificate of the first Latin American Pope in history?
R. – Historically speaking, the Pontifical Commission for Latin America (C.A.L.) was established as a body meant to facilitate the sending of missionaries from Europe to South America. Throughout the years, its physiognomy has changed as the face of the Church has changed. Currently, the flow of missionaries is going in the opposite direction. So, priests from the Latin American continent are treading in reverse the paths taken by the first missionaries to bring the Good News to many European countries. Today, the C.A.L. is a dynamic entity that fosters awareness of the Continent to the Curia and vice versa. Above all it offers its availability regarding the needs of those lands, follows them directly and promotes small direct interventions. In the past few years, the Commission has focused primarily on dialogue and promotes reflection on the priorities regarding the future of this Catholic Continent under the direction of Pope Francis.
An Assembly of 20 members collaborates with the C.A.L. They participate in the Plenaries that reflect on and provide orientations for the future of this territory. I would like to recall the Plenary Assembly of 2018 in a particular way. Its theme was: Woman: a pillar in constructing the Church and society in Latin America. It was a truly beautiful moment, a moment accompanied by the Holy Spirit.
New anti-corruption law for members of Vatican management
Pope Francis releases a Motu proprio requiring a declaration on the part of senior management and administrators that they are clear of convictions or investigations regarding terrorism, money laundering or tax evasion. They will also be prohibited from placing assets in tax havens or investing in companies whose principles are against the Church’s doctrine. All employees are prohibited from receiving gifts worth more than 40 euro.
By Vatican News
“According to Scripture, faithfulness in matters of little consequence is related to faithfulness in more important ones.”
These words introduce Pope Francis’s newMotu proprioon transparency, released on Thursday, through which the Pope will require everyone in a management position in the Holy See, and all who carry out administrative, judicial or supervisory functions, to sign a declaration stating they have never received a conviction, and that they are not subject to any pending criminal trials or investigations regarding corruption, fraud, terrorism, money laundering, exploitation of minors, or tax evasion. The declaration also covers cash holdings or investments in countries at high risk of money laundering or the financing of terrorist activities, in tax havens, or in companies whose policies are against the Church’s social doctrine.
The crackdown follows that of 19 May 2020, when Pope Francis promulgated new regulations regarding procurements. The new regulations are necessary, the Pope explains, because corruption “can be manifested in different manners and forms even in various sectors other than that of procurement. Because of this, internationally accepted regulations and best practices require transparency from those holding key roles in the public sector for the purpose of preventing and combatting conflicts of interest, patronage practices and corruption in general.” Therefore, the Holy See, which has adhered to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), “has decided to conform itself to these best practices to prevent and combat” this phenomenon “in its various forms”.
Along these lines, the Pope has decided to add some articles to the General Regulations of the Roman Curia, with a provision that concerns all those whose roles fall under the categories C, C1, C2 and C3 (that is, from Cardinal heads of Dicasteries to deputy directors holding five-year contracts), and all those who carry out administrative, judicial or supervisory functions. They will have to sign the required declaration when they are hired, and every two years thereafter.
They will be required to declare that they have never been convicted either in the Vatican or in another country, that they have never received a pardon or amnesty, and that they were never pardoned due to statute of limitation; that they are not subject to a criminal trial or being investigated for participation in organized crime, corruption, fraud, terrorism, laundering money from criminal activity, exploitation of minors, human trafficking or the exploitation of human persons, or tax evasion.
They will also be required to declare that they do not hold, even through third parties, cash or investments or stakes in corporations or companies in places included in the list of countries at high risk of money laundering (unless their relatives are residents or domiciled in those countries for valid reasons including family, work or study). They must ensure, that, to their knowledge, all assets or movable and immovable goods owned or held by them, as well as remuneration of any kind, originate from licit activity. Also significant is the requirement “not to hold” shares or “interests” in companies or businesses whose policies are contrary to the Church’s social doctrine.
The Secretariat for the Economy (SPE) will have the capacity to verify the veracity of the written declarations. The Holy See, in the event of false or mendacious declarations, can dismiss the employee and require the payment of damages incurred.
Finally, something new concerning all employees working in the Roman Curia, Vatican City State and related entities, is the prohibition from accepting gifts in connection to their employment, whose value is greater than 40 euro.